Every aspect of culture is influenced by each other. American food culture is influenced by its history, geography and local conditions and customs to form American food habits and food culture characteristics. Its food culture has developed from early backwardness to today’s vigorous development, attracting worldwide attention.
Key words: United States, food culture, development, effect
Nowadays, the United States, as a world power, has its fast food chains in economy and military all over the world, which gradually makes us pay attention to their food content and way.
I. American diet The American diet is more popular, not paying attention to delicacy and luxury, but seeking convenience and quickness. Three meals a day are more casual. Americans have a lighter taste and like to eat raw, cold and sweet foods, such as raw, tender steak and bloodshot steak. Cold, cold frozen vegetables, all drinks are filled with ice, even hot soup is not very hot; Sweet, ice cream shops abound, and like to eat dessert habits, the taste of dishes is generally salty with a little sweet. Frying, deep-frying, stir-frying and roasting are the main cooking methods, instead of braising and steaming. Meat, fish and vegetables are the staple food, bread, noodles and rice are the non-staple food. Sweets include cakes, home-made patties, ice cream, etc. I like to eat green beans, cabbage, bean sprouts, sword beans, mushrooms and other vegetables. The meat used is first bone removed, fish head and tail removed and bone spurs removed, shrimps and crabs shelled, etc.
Breakfast is usually around 8 o’clock, with bread, milk, eggs, fruit juice, oatmeal, coffee, sausage, etc. Lunch is usually from 12: 00 to 14: 00, and fast food is usually used in the workplace. Fast food is closely related to American life. Lunch is the simplest, smallest and most manageable meal of their three meals, usually fast food. Americans pursue efficiency, pay attention to saving time and labor, and pay attention to convenience and benefits. It is this characteristic that makes fast food, which is the characteristic of American catering culture, permeate all corners of American society. The most common fast foods are hot dogs, hamburgers, sandwiches, French fries, potato chips, onion rings, fried chicken, fried fish, pizza, kebab, barbecue, etc. Dinner is usually at around 18 o’clock. It is a full meal with one or two dishes, such as steak, pork chop, roast pork, fried chicken, etc., accompanied by bread, butter, green vegetables, fruits, snacks, etc. Many people also go to restaurants for dinner. There are many restaurants in the United States, which generally offer buffet, fast food, special meal (fixed meal), full meal and other forms of food and beverage. The price is generally relatively low, you can also order dishes, and the ordering price is the highest. Americans have the habit of eating snacks before going to bed. Adults mainly eat fruits and candies, while children eat milk and cookies.
II. Development of American Food and Beverage Dishes
Americans are most exposed to food in their daily life, such as hamburgers, fried chicken, pizza, sandwiches, hot dogs, French fries, sauce noodles, taco rolls. What they eat every day is food imported from western European countries at an early stage. Steak, lamb chops, fish chops and pork chops are not food invented by the United States. It seems that none of the dishes can really be counted as original American dishes, but American dishes are constantly developing and have their own development background and characteristics.
1. Influence of American Cultural Background on Cooking Dishes
All levels of various cultures influence each other. To understand the food culture of the United States, we have to talk about the history, geography and customs of the United States. There are two main factors in the formation and development of a nation’s national diet culture, one is the geographical factor of local nature, the other is the human factor of diversity. For the United States, diverse human factors are more critical than local geographic factors. The situation in the United States is quite special. The land is vast, the history is short, and people of different races from more than 100 countries immigrated to the United States. The total population now is about 280 million, including 43 million Spanish-speaking residents, 36 million blacks, and more than 10 million immigrants from Asia. Such a large number of immigrants immigrated to the United States. These people are not of the same civilization or race. Flavor dishes from various countries spread to the United States. Over time, changes have taken place in “adjusting measures to local conditions and varying from person to person.” Immigrants settled in the United States and took root, making the United States a melting pot for the world’s ethnic groups. Therefore, the formation of American food dishes also comes from this “melting pot”.
2. Early American Cooking Skills
The early American cooking industry was underdeveloped and the cooking skill level was backward. The reasons were as follows: firstly, the length and depth of history and culture were not enough. It is only 230 years since the United States became an independent country in 1776. It is only 50 to 60 years since the United States gradually developed into a rich and powerful country after the victory of World War II. When the primitive Indians in the United States were desperately searching for food to live on, hoping to let themselves and their families live on, they could not create any delicious food, let alone inherit the cooking skills. Secondly, the founding spirit and nation of the United States are conservative and simple. In the early 17th century, in order to promote religious freedom and Christianity, the English Puritans sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to the United States with the spirit of adventure, struggle and not fear hardship. These devout Puritans attached importance to spiritual life instead of material life, attached importance to religious etiquette, and advocated a hard-working and simple way of life. They are the ancestors of the United States, and their children and grandchildren living in the United States have also inherited the fine traditions and developed the moral norms of frugality, courtesy and conformity. Their mainstream values of frugality, no waste, no vanity and seeking truth from facts restrict and hinder the progress and development of delicious food. Then, the United States did not have the royal family’s promotion and encouragement to cooking. However, China, France, Italy, Spain and even Persia, India and Thailand, which are relatively advanced in the culinary industry, once had royal nobles who attached great importance to food. If the respect, emperor and king of a country like to eat, the innovation of cooking dishes must be greatly promoted. Whether it is the capital city, the palace or the wangfu in various places, the chefs of the country will rack their brains to surpass them in order to seek the favor of the emperor and the minister, which will inevitably form the driving force of by going up one flight of stairs’s food culture and cooking skills. Unfortunately, the United States seems to have only heard of lecherous presidents and no delicious presidents, so it has not formed a set of gourmet recipes that can cover the whole country.
3. Formation and Characteristics of American Cuisine The early immigrants in the United States were English Puritans and American pioneers. Influenced by them, traditional American cuisine is just like traditional Americans. It is characterized by “rough and crazy reality”. Fresh raw materials are eaten without additives and flavoring agents, and the food remains original and original. The cooking process is not sloppy and slow. Neither baking, frying or frying has very complicated work. Apart from a few local dishes, it does not pay attention to slow stewing over a small fire, nor does it have too many fancy decorations. The food placed on the plate can be eaten in the stomach, so that one can have a good and real meal. The main structure of food in the United States is 1234, which is triangular in shape. The most important ones are beef, chicken and fish, pigs, sheep and shrimps, and bread, potatoes, corn and vegetables.
Americans all recognize that European cuisine is the ancestor of American cuisine. American cuisine is based on European cuisine, and through its own improvement, it has gradually established its own catering body and even spread to all parts of the world.
At the end of the 20th century, with the development of American civilization and economy and the development of information and transportation, Americans’ demand for food also gradually increased. Especially since 1965, when the United States relaxed its immigration policy, people from all walks of life poured in from all over the world. These huge new immigrants had a huge impact on the social and cultural structure of the United States. The cooking methods and cuisine characteristics brought by the new immigrants spread all over the United States, making the dining tables of American families and restaurants rich and diversified.
4. U.S. Catering Industry Booms In the past 20 years or so, the high-tech industry in the United States has made rapid progress. Americans, especially the younger generation, have not only increased their economic income, but also increased their work pressure. Therefore, they pay more attention to leisure and food. Especially for dinner, I am willing to spend money to enjoy relaxed delicious food and choose mellow grape wine to match. Due to the strong demand of the market, various types of restaurants, whether they are fast food restaurants with general consumption, family restaurants with medium consumption or high-end restaurants, have mushroomed in all parts of the United States and the U.S. catering industry has shown a vigorous trend.
III. Effect of American Food Culture Development
With the continuous progress of American food culture, the food and beverage industry can develop so rapidly and occupy a pivotal position in the United States and the world. Its success has two main pillars: one is to pay attention to research and development, and the other is to stress efficiency. U.S. enterprises are willing to invest a large amount of funds to employ scholars and experts, not only to improve the varieties of various raw materials such as cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens, ducks, aquatic products, agricultural products, etc., to improve the cultivation and cultivation techniques, and to improve the output and quality, but also to match the objective standards of popular food dishes in various countries with the regional needs, and to give appropriate and ingenious changes, such as brand culture coupled with happy and fashionable packaging, to systematically introduce products with high quality and low price, and with unique varieties and tastes, which are welcomed by the vast number of consumers. On the other hand, Americans attach great importance to efficiency, especially businessmen, who are very strict in tying quality improvement to market promotion. They also use scientific methods to standardize product quality and management methods and use accurate marketing methods to spread to all parts of the country, forming regional chains, national chains and even global franchise chain-style super enterprises. Every franchise store has a detailed management manual. Every employee in the store has a clear division of labor and responsibilities. Chefs must also follow the rules in the manual to cook food dishes. Besides paying attention to quality and delicacy, they must also know how to control costs, pursue profits and enhance the vitality of the enterprise. It is worth learning that this set of management mode matches the humanized management mode.
The United States is a “melting pot”. Immigrants from all over the world bring their own national cultural characteristics there, and various cultures meet and merge with each other. The catering culture of the United States is developing continuously in this melting pot, and its efficient management mode has made the catering industry in the United States flourish.